- New Jessica Simpson Teddi Crescent Heel Ankle Boot Brown Casual Size 7.5 $130
- Alfani Womens Violla Closed Toe Knee High Fashion Boots, Black, Size 6.5 GM9t
- Rockport Men's Dressports 2 Go Plain Toe Shoe - Choose SZ/Color
- Christian Louboutin Leopard Mini Spikes Size 40
- Clear Weather One O One in Sand Suede Sz Size 11.5 Moccasin mid top
- TEVA MENS SANDALS VOYA FLIP COLE INSIGNIA BLUE SIZE 11
- Spring Step Womens livana Open Toe, Gold, Size 6.0
- MENS MIZUNO WAVE RIDER 20 RUNNING SHOES SZ 7.5 40 M USED SNEAKERS BLEMISH
- NIKE JORDAN JUMPMAN TEAM II '15 MENS WHITE LEATHER BASKETBALL SHOES SZ 10.5
- JOHNSTON & MURPHY Chukka Ankle Boot Brown Leather 20-7470 Mens Size 12 Med
- NEW KNAPP MEN'S BACKHOE 6" STEEL TOE BOOTS (K5020) BROWN 13 MEDIUM $110 NIB
- ROCKY Mens Steel Shank Thinsulate Waterproof Work Boots Size 14 M
- Mens Ralph Lauren POLO Ankle BOOTS Welted Eyelet Lacing Plus Buckle Strap 8D
- Riding Mens Womens High Top Summer Leather Combat boots Dessert Casual Canvas
- Justin Brown Orange Leather Square Toe Buckaroo Cowboy Boots Size 10 D
- Puma Mens Canvas Slip On Loafers Shoes Grey Brown Leather Top Strap Size US 10
- Cole Haan C25936 Mens Santa Barbara Twin Gore II Loafer- Choose SZ/Color.
- Christian Louboutin Pink Fifi Collection Pumps Size US 6 Regular (M, B)
- Adidas Men's ZX Flux SZ 9.5 Black Mutil-Color BB2773
- Dior Black J'adior Patent Leather Slingback Pumps Size EU 36 (Approx. US 6) Regular (M, B)
- Christian Louboutin Black Simple Pumps Size US 8 Regular (M, B)
- Nike Vandal High Supreme Ltr Mens Size 11.5 Shoes Green Ah8518 300 Leather Rare
- Nike Air Versitile, US Shoe Size Men's-14,Medium,Cool Grey,Solid (852413 010)
- Adidas Midiru VC W 660506 Sneaker Women's
- NIKE AIR MAX 90 "NIKELAB" SP/SACAI OBSIDIAN/BLACK SIZE WOMEN'S 7 [804550-440]
- adidas Performance Women's Crazytrain Bounce W Cross-Trainer, Shoe, 6.5 M US
- New Womens Cuban Heel Knee High Long Riding Boot Zip Leather Shoes Winter Autumn
- MEN'S NIKE AIR MAX INVIGOR SZ. 9.5 NEW W/DEFECT RUNNING SHOE PRISTINE
- 2013 Nike Air Jordan 11 Retro Low Tuxedo Size 4y
- Chic Womens Embroidery Printing Florals Stilettos Ankle Boots Pointed Toe Retro
- Twisted X Boots Women's WAB0004
- Ariat Womens Ammorette-W Ammorette Western Cowboy Boot- Choose SZ/Color.
- Urban Outfitters Womens 8 Black Satin Mules Slides Shoe
- BOBS from Skechers Women's Chill Slip-On Flat - Choose SZ/Color
- Gentleman/Lady Skechers Women's Microburst Underwraps Fashion Sneaker Guarantee quality and quantity Settlement Price Global sales
- Man/Woman Remonte Ladies Casual Flats - 43865 online sale International choice Excellent workmanship
- Christian Peau handmade cowskin black monkey boots, size 40
- Womens Nike M2K Tekno AO3108-600 Pink Foam Brand New Size 11.5
- Man's/Woman's BRANDY BEIGE LEATHER Reputation first Win highly appreciated Fashion dynamic
- Saucony Women's Breakthru 4 Running Sneaker Fog/Grey/Blue Sneakers
- NIKE Womens Nike Zoom Fly 897821-002 VAST GREY Size 5
- Drew for Women Alexis 13395-01 Leather Walking Comfort Casual Dress Shoes
- EUC AE Allen Edmonds MARITIME Boat Shoes US 11 D Beige Leather
- Johnston Murphy Passport Loafer Tassel Double Kiltie Moc Toe US 12 M Brazil
- Alfani Rod Dark Brown Mens 11.5 stitch bike toe casual sneaker shoe NEW
- Men's Sperry Top-Sider Defender 2-Eye Taupe Boat Shoes
- MEN'S Oaktrak-Size 9M-BLACK LEATHER OXFORD/SHOE (Heavy Duty)
- WHITE MOUNTAIN Women US 8M Black Leather Jealous Mid-Calf Boot Zip Square Toe
- Naturalizer Drannon Women's Black Leather Wedge Boot Size 10.5M worn once
- NEW VINCE CAMUTO FERMEL Slouch Tassel Boots WOMENS 8.5 Brown Suede $169.
- COLE HAAN Brown Leather Mid-Calf Boots SZ 6.5 B
- Man's/Woman's Camper Black Leather Vintage Boots Innovative design Win highly appreciated Reliable reputation
- Clarks 'Bilton Step' Mens Black Leather Slip On Shoes
- Maison Margiela Future Low Top Leather Sneakers Black
- Gentleman/Lady Givenchy Low-Cut Sneakers 39Blk Shoes (43848 Various goods Moderate cost Outstanding style
- mens genuine leather Flip Flop sandals casual chique black brown tan Goth Specks
- new DONALD J PLINER 'Bobijo' black leather loafers flats shoes Made in Italy 9.5
- Men's NIKE White Football Rugby Cleats Shoes Size 14 306089 101 MIB 2003 Mint
- New Balance M12OGY6 Sneakers-Men's size 8.5 D Grey
- MENS PHAT FARM SPORT ANKLE HIGH NUNBUCK WHEAT BOOTS SZ 13
- Rockport adiPRENE Composite Toe Waterproof Work Boot
- Christian Louboutin Nude Decollete 554 100 Patent Pumps Size EU 38.5 (Approx. US 8.5) Regular (M, B)
- Dr. Martens Multi Colored Floral Not Trade Only Boots/Booties Size US 6 Regular (M, B)
- Purple Kam Platforms Size US 8 Regular (M, B)
- Johnston & Murphy Mens Chukka Boots Suede Sheepskin Memory Foam Size 10 Blue
- Northside Boots Men's Winter Waterproof Padded Sherpa Collar Pack Size 8 New!
- Dr Martens 8287 Men 8 US Shoe 7 UK Brown Leather Low Ankle Boot England Women 9
- Supra Skytop HF White Leather Skate High Top Shoes White Vulcanized Sole Size 12
- Original Penguin Men's Shoes - Cap Toe Leather Dress Shoe - Black Size 9 New
- men's shoes UMBERTO LUCIANI 7 () sneakers blue leather / suede AP352-C
- PUMA Women's Mega Nrgy Wn Sneaker Forest Night 6 M US
- Nike Air Max Huarache 2K4 Men's Sneakers Camo Army Size 9.5
- Nike Kobe 11 XI TB Promo Court Purple Basketball Mens Size 17 856485-551
- Adidas NMD R1 Women’s Size 6
- Womens Nike Air Max 1 Ultra 2.0 FK MTLC BLACK Gold Running Trainers 881195 001
- Soda Women's Albert Faux Suede Cowboy Pull-Tab Stacked Heels Ankle Booties,...
- Marc Fisher Womens Shayna Leather Almond Toe Knee High, Dark Brown, Size 5.5 Lon
- Men's Nike Air Huarache Run Premium Sz 7.5
- Adidas NEO VS Advantage CL Women Casual Shoes White/Aero Pink
- Steve Madden Women's Effect Ankle Boot - Choose SZ/color
- Dolce Vita Womens Noa Tan Chic Western Booties Heels 9.5 Medium (B,M) BHFO 5474
- Women boots suede model SEMI BOOTIE Us 3.5 to 12
- Womans Jambu J Sport Regatta Navy Blue Vegan Hook Loop Strap Shoes Size 10 NEW
- BX243 CARMENS shoes black leather women moccasins
- Dr.Martens Originals Adrian Penny Loafer Arcadia Cherry Womens Shoes Size 7M
- Nine West 25029482 Womens Edwards Synthetic Ballet Flat- Choose SZ/Color.
- NWOB$1295 Brunello Cucinelli Leather + Monili Bead Platform Sneakers 37/7US A181
- AH426 JEFFREY CAMPBELL shoes fuchsia textile women sneakers
- ECCO Biom Womens Bluma Race Moon Rock Low Cut Leather Shoes US 9 - 9.5 NWB
- NIKE WOMEN'S AIR MAX 90 PRM SHOES dark grey gum yellow 896497 003
- NIKE Kobe A.D. NXT Mens 882049-007_8.5 - Black/Metallic Silver-White
- Women's Worx by Red Wing Shoes Aluminum Toe EH Work Shoe 9308
- Prada Men's Black Leather Casual Oxfords Shoes Sz 7 7.5 8 8.5 9.5 10 11
- Ashworth Black Suede Casual Golf Shoes 11.5
- Men's Comfort Casual Comfort Plus Size Slip On Drive Slippers Warm Walking Shoes
- Men's Skechers Ryler Cenelo - Beige - Width: med - Oxfords
- Vittorio Virgili Black Suede Mens Loafers Made in Italy Sz 41 US sz 8-8.5
- Sundance Catalog GeeWawa Madison Tan Leather Cowboy Boots, Size 8. Retail $175
- LAREDO Women's Size 6.5 M Pearl Leather Roper Cowboy Boots Style 6917
- Sofft Wesley Black Leather Stacked Heel Zip Bootie US Women 8.5 EUC
- Isola New Black Suede Leather Vince Booties Enzo Heels Ankle Boots Heels Sz 7.5
- Belle Sigerson Morrison Tall Brown Leather Wedge Boots, Size 6.5
- Levis Baxter Leather Men's Boots Brown 516995-01b
- New Balance Men's Shoes 295997 Grey 28ｃｍ
- Mauri 6119 Claude 'Legend' White Nappa Leather High-top Sneakers
- New Under Armour Mens Ignite Breaker V Slide Size 11 Black Camo Style 3000055
- Sanuk Women's Donna Daily Slip-on Loafer - Choose SZ/Color
- Giuseppe Zanotti Black Leather Sneaker Boots/Booties Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)
- Christian Louboutin Black and Red Cross Minetta Suede Leather Python Platform Sandals Size US 6.5
- Giuseppe Zanotti Black Silver New Sneakers Size US 10 Regular (M, B)
- Spring New Men's Casual Canvas Shoes Students Sports Shoes White Shoes Y550
- Nike 454164-016 Lunarlon Lunarglide3 Men Gray Sport Running Athletic Shoes Sz 15
- ORTHOFEET Bismarck Hook & Loop Strap Black Shoes Men's Size 13 XW
- Stacy Adams Men's Trickster Moc toe chukka Black Boots 53419-001
- Mens Black Smooth Leather Dress Zipper Ankle Boots Western Dress Round Toe
- Man/Woman khombu boots Clearance price discount a lot of varieties
- Man's/Woman's Represent Chelsea Boot Sz 10 US Aesthetic appearance Low price Fashion versatile shoes
- Men's Skechers 62929 Brown High-top Boots Size 10 M
- TOTO H335082 - 2.8 Inches Elevator Height Increase Cracked Leather Shoe Brown
- Georgia GB00223 Carbo-Tec Mens Brown Leather 11" Western Work Boots
- NWT MEN'S ADIDAS NEMEZIZ MESSI 17.3 FG WHITE/BLUE SOCCER CLEATS SHOES SZ 10.5
- Nike Lebron XIV Low Black Basketball Shoes 878636-002 (Size 11.5)
- Nike court Borough Black 838937-001 Leather Shoes Men
- Adidas Gazelle Casual Shoes W Womens BA9596 OWHITE,White,GOLDMT Womens Size 9.5
- $190 WMNS AIR MAX 2017 Platinum Lava SZ 10 WOMENS [849560-007] 1 97 98 95 93
- EUC Nike WMNS Air Zoom Pegasus 33 Running Shoes Wolf Grey Coral Sz 9 831356-004
- AdTec Women's 8612 13" Western Pull On Brown Faux Leather Size 6 M
- Nike Zoom KD 10 X KD10 Kevin Durant LMTD AH0895 900 GS Youth Anniversary Multi 4
- Nike Men's Air Force 1 Sneakers - Size 10.5 US, White
- US4.5-11.5 womens block chunky kitten heel pom knee high boots party shoes warm
- Zara Blue Fabric Over the Knee Boots Patent Black Cap Toe Small Heel Size 35/5
- Andrew Charles D41 ABRASIVATO NERO GLITTER NERO boots Women's Black US
- Clark's Artisan Collection Brown Leather Heels Womens Size 9M
- CLARKS Women's Azella Jazlynn Sneaker - Choose SZ/Color
- Womens Bowknot Oxfords Loafers British Real Leather Cuban Heel Pumps Shoes Chic
- JCrew $138 Lily Cap-Toe Ballet Flats Sz 10 Vivid Burgundy Shoes G7843 (Flaw) AVL
[Editor’s Note: In Part I of this series, Dr. Nick Marsella addressed the duty we have to examine our assumptions about emergent warfighting technologies / capabilities and their associated implications to identify potential second / third order and “evil” effects. Western Chief Women Solid Tall Waterproof Rain Boot Black 11 M USAllegra K Women's Chunky High Heel Platform Zipper Chelsea Boots Red 7.5 M US In today’s post, he prescribes five actions we can embrace both individually and as organizations to avoid confirmation bias and falling into cognitive thinking traps when confronting the ramifications of emergent technologies — Enjoy!]
In part I of my blog post, I advised those advocating for the development and/or fielding of technology to be mindful of the second/third order and possible “evil” effects. I defined “evil” as an unexpected and profound negative implication(s) of the adoption/adaption of a technology and related policy. I also recommended heeding the admonition of Tim Cook, Apple’s CEO, to take responsibility for our technological creations and have the courage to think things through their potential implications – both for the good and the bad.
But even if we as individuals are willing to challenge our assumptions and think broadly and imaginatively, we can still come up short. Why? The answer is due in part to the challenges of prediction and the fact we are human with both great cognitive abilities, but also weaknesses.
First, common sense and many theorists remind us that the future is unknowable.Womens Original Tall Snow Winter Waterproof Rain Wellies Wellington Boots BlackPSW Womens MSTKH Rubber Rain Boots Black/Red & White Polka Dots 9 B(M) USThe futurist Arthur C. Clark noted in 1962, “It is impossible to predict the future, and all attempts to do in any detail appear ludicrous within a very few years.” Within this fixed condition of unknowing, the U.S. Departments of Defense and the Army must make choices to determine:
– what capabilities we desire and its related technology;
– where to invest in research and development; and
As Michael E. Raynor pointed out in his book, Madden Girl Womens eloise Round Toe Ankle Fashion Boots, Black Paris, Size 7.0, making choices and developing strategies, which include adopting new technology, where the future is unknowable and “deeply unpredictable” either produces monumental successes or monumental failures.Naughty Monkey Women's Natasha Western Boot, Black, 9.5 M USMIA Women's Portia Ankle Boot, Stone, Size 7.5 For a company this can spell financial ruin, while for the Army, it can spell disaster and the loss of Soldiers’ lives and national treasure. Yet, we must also choose a “way ahead” – often by considering “boundaries” – in a sense the left and right limits – of potential implications.
Second, our ability to predict when technology will become available is often in error nor can we accurately determine its implications. For example, in a New York Times editorial on December 8, 1903, it noted: “A man carrying airplane will eventually be built, NIB FitFlop Supermod Black Crinkle Patent Boot Shoes US 8.5 40 Fit FlopWomen's Vera Wang Simply Vera Stretch Platform Wedge Ankle Bootiesbut only if mathematicians and engineers work steadily for the next ten million years.”5 The Wright Brothers first flight took place the following week, but it took decades for commercial and military aviation to evolve.
Each of the services has faced force modernization challenges due to the adoption of technologies that weren’t mature enough; whose capabilities were over-promised; or did not support operations in the envisioned Operational Environment. For the U.S. Army, Future Combat Systems (FCS) was the most obvious and recent example of this challenge – costing billions of dollars and, just as importantly, lost time and confidence.Madden Girl Women's Prissley Slouch Boot - Choose SZ/ColorCLARKS Womens Sillian Chell Closed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots
Third, in terms of future technology, predictions vary widely. For example, predictions by MIT’s Rodney Brooks and futurist/inventor Ray Kurzweil vary widely to the question – “What year do you think human-level Artificial Intelligence [AI, i.e., a true thinking machine] might be achieved with a 50% probability?” Kurzweil predicts AI (as defined) will be available in 2029, while Brooks is a bit more conservative – the year 2200 – a difference of over 170 years.Rampage Womens Viva Peep Toe Side Cut Out Block Heeled Bootie - Choose SZ/ColorTorrid Genuine Suede Heeled Slingback Booties Wide Width Black 9
While one can understand the difficulty of predicting when “general AI” will be available, other technologies offer similar difficulties. The vision of the “self-driving” autonomous vehicle was first written about and experimented with in the 1920s, yet technological limitations, legal concerns, customer fears, and other barriers make implementing this capability challenging.
Lastly, as Rodney Brooks has highlighted, Nomad Women's Janis Boho Fringe Bootie maintains:
“we tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.”Women Pointed Toe Faux Leather Ankle Boots Casual Chunky High Heels Zipper Shoes
SECOND, THIRD ORDER AND EVIL EFFECTS
– intentionally focus on the positive effects of adopting a technology;
– ignore the experts and those who identify the potential downside of technology; and
– fail to think thorough the short, long, and potentially dangerous effects or dependencies – imaginatively.
We do this because we are human, and more often because we fall into the confirmation bias or other cognitive thinking traps that might affect our program or pet technology. As noted by RAND in Truth Decay:Skechers Sport Women's Flex Appeal 2.0 Simplistic - Choose SZ/colorMadewell J Crew Black Ankle Billie Boot Size 9.5
“Cognitive biases and the ways in which human beings process information and make decisions cause people to look for information, opinion, and analyses that confirm preexisting beliefs, to weigh experience more heavily than data and facts, and then to rely on mental shortcuts and the beliefs of those in the same social networks when forming opinions and making decisions.”9
Yet, the warning signs or signals for many unanticipated effects can be found simply by conducting a literature review of government, think tank, academic, and popular reports (to perhaps include science fiction). This may deter some, given the sheer volume of literature is often overwhelming, but contained within these reports are many of the challenges associated with future technology, such as: the potential for deep fakes, loss of privacy, hacking,Sweet Women Pointy Toe Mesh Mid Block Heel Bowknot Ankle Boot Shoes Fall CasaulLadies Knight Punk Rivets Zip back Patent Leather Chunky Heels Ankle Boots Shoes accidents, deception, and loss of industries/jobs.
At the national level, both the current and previous administrations published reports on AI, as has the Department of Defense – some more balanced in addressing of issues of fairness, safety, governance, and ethics.10
For example, using photo recognition to help law enforcement and others seems like a great idea, yet its use is increasingly being questioned. This past May, San Francisco became the first city to ban its use, and others may follow suit.11 While some question this decision to ban vice impose a moratorium until the technology produces less errors, the question remains – did the developers and policy makers consider if there would be push back to its introduction given its current performance?Women‘s Shoes Solid Round Toe Mid Heel Knight Boots Simple Cowhide Pull On BootsWomen Stylish Rivet High Heels Stiletto Ankle Boots Pointed Toe Patent Leather What sources did they consult?
Another challenge is language. You’ve seen the commercials – “there is much we can do with AI” – in farming, business, and even beer making. While “AI” is a clever tag line, it may invoke unnecessary fear and misunderstanding. For example, I believe for most people equate “robotics” and “AI” with the “Terminator” franchise, raising the fear of uncontrolled autonomous military force overwhelming humanity. Even worse – under the moniker of “AI,” we will buy into “snake-oil” propositions.
We are at least decades away from “general AI” where a “system exhibits apparently intelligence behavior at least as advanced as a person” across the “full range of cognitive tasks,” but we continue to flaunt the use of “AI” without elaboration.Ladies Maroon Leather Justin Roper Western Boots Sz: 8.5 A NARROW (AF)Men's/Women's black velvet size 6.5 stiletto boots Good world reputation Medium cost fine
SOME ACTIONS TO TAKE
Embrace a learning organization. Popularized by Peter Senge’s The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (1990), a learning organization is a place “where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together.”Womens Tound Toe Wedge High Heel Ankle Boots Platform Pull On Casual Shoes CH8 While some question whether we can truly make a learning organization, Senge’s thinking may help solve our problem of identifying 2nd/3rd order and evil effects.
First, we must embrace new and expansive patterns of thinking. Force developers use the acronym – “DOTMPLF-P” as shorthand for Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Personnel, Leadership, Facilities, and Policy implications – yet other factors might be as important.
For example, trust in automated or robotics systems must be instilled and measured. In one poll, 73% of respondents noted they would be afraid of riding in a fully autonomous vehicle – up 10% points from the previous year.14 What if we develop a military autonomous vehicle or a leader-follower system and one or more of our host nation allies prohibits its use? What happens if an accident occurs and the host population protests, Ta Womens Tassel Fringe Zip Heel Sexy Stilettos Pointy Toe Knee High Party BootsGentlemen/Ladies Corkys Emiliee - Black - Womens Elegant appearance cheapest Current shapearguing that the Americans don’t care for their safety?
Technologists and concept developers must move from being stove-piped in labs and single-focused to consider the broader view of technological implications across functions.
Embrace Humility. Given that we cannot predict the future and its potential consequences, developers must seek out diversified opinions, and more importantly, recognize divergent opinions.
Embrace the Data. In New York City during World War II, a small organization of some of the most brilliant minds in America worked in the office of the “Applied Mathematics Panel.” In Europe, the 8th U.S. Air Force suffered from devastating bomber losses. Women's Round Toe High Wedge Hidden Heels Pu Leather Overknee Thigh Boots Size 9NEW Crocs Women’s Leigh Suede Mix Wedge Ankle Bootie Espresso Size 11 M BootLeaders wondered where best to reinforce the bombers with additional armor without significantly increasing their weight to improve survivability. Reports indicated returning bombers suffered gunfire hits over the wings and fuselage, but not in the tail or cockpits, so to the casual observer it made sense to reinforce the wings and fuselage where the damage was clearly visible.
Abraham Wald, a mathematician, worked on the problem. He noted that reinforcing the spots where damage was evident in returning aircraft wasn’t necessarily the best course of action, given that hits to the cockpit and tail were probably causing aircraft (and aircrew) losses during the mission. In a series of memorandums, he developed a “method of estimating plane vulnerability based on damage of survivors.” As Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes noted more than 100 years ago, “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.”Women Suede Leather Over Knee High Boot Side Zip Chunky Block Roma Casual ShoesWomens Ankle Riding Boots Transparent Med Block Heels S9 Faux Fur Pointed Toe
Additionally, we need to reinforce our practice of performing quality literature reviews to aid in our identification of these issues.
Employ Skepticism and a Devil’s Advocate Approach. In 1587, the Roman Catholic Church created the position of Promoter of the Faith – commonly referred to as the Devil’s Advocate. To insure a candidate for sainthood met the qualification of being canonized, the role of the Devil’s Advocate was to be the skeptic (loyal to the institution), looking for reasons why not to canonize the individual. Similarly, Leaders must embrace the concept of employing a devil’s advocate approach to identifying 2nd/3rd order and evil effects of technology – if not designating a devil’s advocate with the right expertise to identify assumptions, risks, and effects. But creating any devil’s advocate or “risk identification” positions is only useful if their input is seriously considered.
Embrace the Suck. Lastly, if we are serious in identifying the 2nd/3rd order and evil effects, Sexy Womens Sequare Top Block Heel Ankle Boots Pull On Shoes Booties Plus Sz USWomens Crystal Chunky Mid Heels Knee High Boots Warm Black Square Toe Shoes 1213to include identifying new dependencies, ethical issues, or other issues which challenge the adaption or development of a new technology or policy – then we must be honest, resilient, and tough. There will be setbacks, delays, and frustration.
Technology holds the power to improve and change our personal and professional lives. For the military, technology changes the ways wars are fought (i.e., the character of war), but it may also change the nature of war by potentially reducing the “human dimension” in war. If robotics, AI, and other technological developments eliminate “danger, physical exertion, intelligence and friction,”17 is war easier to wage? Will technology increase its potential frequency? Will technology create a further separation between the military and the population by decreasing the number of personnel needed? These may be some of the 2nd/3rd order and “evil” effects we need to consider.
If you enjoyed this post, please see Dr. Marsella’s previous post “Second/Third Order, and Evil Effects” – The Dark Side of Technology (Europe Women's Patent Leather Fashion Retro Low Cuban Heels Fur Ankle Boots Size)
… as well as the following posts:Womens Floral Chic Cuban Heel Knee High Boots Embroidery Zipper Casual ShoesNEW $74.99 WOMENS APT 9 MID SHAFT TAN MICROSUEDE BOOTS
– Womens Suede new Pointy Toe Party Ankle Boot Zipper High Cuban Heel Shoes Chic, by Dr. Nir Buras