Repost of an Type Z Flo Black Boot tall New Leather Tall Ruching Side Zipper NEW from 2009 by Charles S. Viar (Twitter: present chairman of the Center for Intelligence Studies in Washington D.C. (reposted here for layout reasons; in accordance with the copyright notice at the bottom of the essay):
White Mountain Womens Kansas Fabric Closed Toe Ankle Fashion, Wheat, Size 8.5 PV
Charles S. Viar
Although the origins of intelligence have been lost in the mists of time, the practice is at least as ancient as warfare. In what is perhaps the oldest written reference to an intelligence operation, The Book of Numbers recounts God’s command that Moses dispatch a reconnaissance team to scout the Israelite advance upon the Promised Land:
Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the Children of Israel. Of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, everyone a ruler among them…
Had the Canaanites possessed an effective counterintelligence capability, the story of the Israelite assault might have ended differently. For even a minimal foreknowledge of their intentions and capabilities would have made it possible for the Canaanites to organize a more effective defense. But as may be inferred from the Bible, they failed to detect the operation directed against them.Womens Black 4.5" High Heel Open Toe Over Knee Sexy Boot Size 8XOXO New Womens Olivia Black Wedge Boots 10 M Shoes NWB
For that, they paid a fearsome price.
Alfani Womens saage Fabric Pointed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots
Narrowly defined as “evaluated information,” intelligence is a dynamic process that involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data to national policymakers and other government officials of lesser rank. Intelligence serves to forewarn them of likely actions, events, and developments within their sphere of responsibility; and aids in matching available resources to threats and opportunities alike. As such, it is the sine qua non of effective statecraft.
More broadly, intelligence also serves as a force-multiplier. Much as Archimedes Lever makes it possible to magnify mechanical force transmitted across space, covert and clandestine intelligence operations make it possible for states to enhance the power they project beyond their frontiers.Viva by SHOEDAZZLE, Navy faux suede, open toe, fringed OTK thigh boots, SZ 6.5Brown Winter Comfortable Flat Ankle Boot Fur Inside/Gold Button Size 8.5 History is littered with examples of small and middling states exercising disproportionate influence through the deft application of secret intelligence.
Given the enormous – and occasionally decisive – advantages conferred by effective intelligence in the Great Game of Nations, well-governed states seek to maximize the effectiveness of their own intelligence services and to protect themselves against hostile services deployed against them.NAUGHTY MONKEY WOMEN'S PRETTY PLEASE 0635 BOOTS BLACK LEATHER US SIZE 8.5 MEDIUMG By Guess Trinna Knee High Hidden Platfrom Boot Black Women 6.5 M US MSRP $ 119 Domestic security typically provides one level of defense, and counterintelligence another.
Style & Co. Womens Witty Leather Closed Toe Mid-Calf Cold, Chestnut, Size 7.0 oB
Although counterintelligence has been recognized as an integral component of state security since the Chinese military scholar Sun Tzu published The Art of War in the Fourth or Fifth century BC, the concept remains muddled. For almost two and a half millennia, the term itself has defied definition.
According to James Angleton, the legendary former Chief of CIA Counterintelligence, the term is ineffable. Although Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Operations generally concurred, he believed counterintelligence could nonetheless be described in terms of core functions. Gianni Bini Women's Shoes Size 7.5M Nude High Heels Platform Slingback StilettoCLARKS Womens GELATA ITALIA Black/Brown Booties US-9.5M; UK-7; EU-41(26112881)Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Analysis, however, disagreed with both. According to Raymond G. Rocca, counterintelligence is self-defined: it applies to any action undertaken to counter, i.e., negate, the efforts of hostile intelligence services.
Having studied under all three of the practitioners listed above, the writer of this paper eventually concluded Rocca’s understanding is more nearly correct; and has since argued that counterintelligence can be best illustrated by contrast. Where counterespionage – or security – seeks to neutralize individual spies and spy rings, counterintelligence attempts to neutralize hostile intelligence services as a whole.KHOMBU Canyon Black Waterproof Winter Knee High Boot Size 7.5 NIB $120
- Ferrini Women's Mandala Western Boot - Square Toe White 8 M
- EARTH SPIRIT CLASSICS Caroline Women's Shoes Black Leather Penny Loafers 7 M
- Women's Genuine Leather Chic Metal Decor Slip On Loafers Mules Shoes Slingbacks
- Crocs Women's Lina Suede Ballet Flat - Choose SZ/Color
- Demonia Creeper-216 Black Vegan Suede Platform Shoes - Gothic,Goth,Punk,Black,Bu
- Alexander McQueen Burgundy Leather Skull Charm Ballerina Flats (Size 38.5)
- Life Stride Women's Adley Ankle Bootie Taupe Synthetic
- Steve Madden Ecntrcqt Womens Fashion Sneaker, Blush, 11 M US
- Women's adidas EQT Racing ADV Casual Shoes White/Chalk Coral CQ2156 PNK
- In Hand Nike Lebron 16 LMTD HFR Women’s Size 6.5/Men’s Size 5
- Dansko Women's Fawna Mary Jane Flat,Saddle Burnished Nappa,40 EU/9.5-10 M US
- OLUKAI MENS SHOES NOHEA MOKU FOG CHARCOAL SIZE 10.5
- Cole Haan Brown Leather Mens Boat Style Shoes 9.5 M
- Men/Women Cadillac Escort Suede Shoes Size 12 Many styles Selected materials value
- Vionic Orthaheel Mens BRYSON Canvas Sneakers Shoes 45BRYSON WHITE Size 13
- Mens vogue Buckle Brogue British pull on Dress Formal low heel shoes Leather hot
- Guess leather ankle boots Stiletto size 8.5
- Khombu Merritt Quilted Soft Lined Winter Rain Boots 812, Black, 6.5 US
- NEW Rockport M78023 Sidewalk Expressions Ghillie Boots, Women's Brown - Pick Sz
- brand NEW!! corso Como leather knee boots brown size 8.5
- LUCKY BRAND ORIGINALS WOMEN'S BLACK LEATHER KNEE HIGH BOOTS EQUESTRIAN SIZE 7/37
NOW: Bottes hautes marron en daim Talons 8 cms Pointure 39
In a more perfect world, intelligence services would aspire to comprehensive coverage of their targets. But in actual practice, physical, organizational, political, and budgetary constraints have traditionally forced them to limit their collection activities to data pertaining to the targeted state’s organization, capabilities, and intentions. More recently, intelligence services have been tasked with gathering financial, economic, and technical data as well; and with the development of remote collection techniques, the amount of raw data collected by major intelligence services has become staggering in both scope and volume.
From a theoretical standpoint, intelligence collection and analysis should not be especially difficult. But given the fact that intelligence services routinely devote a substantial portion of their resources to deception operations designed to deceive their adversaries, Shellys London Keeper Black Leather Strap Enclosed Chunky Block Heel Loaferthe task is far more difficult than it first appears. Tables of organization and orders of battle can be faked, deployment patterns and readiness indicators manipulated, and communications traffic played for purpose. Indeed, almost any sort of intelligence data can be fabricated and fed to foreign intelligence services through sacrificial spies, dangles, false defectors, and dispatched agents.
This inherent vulnerability to hostile deception operations lays bare what Angleton formally referred to as the Epistemological Problem:Call It Spring Mirilise Knee High Womens Boots Black Size 6 NewWithout Box!!new ladies Black 1"Block Heel Sexy long Over Knee Boots Size 8.
Given the fact that foreign intelligence services routinely mount large and carefully crafted deception operations against us, how can we know what we believe to be true is actually so?
In less guarded moments, he called it “That damnable question.”
JOLI BOTTINE TOUT EN CUIR PLEIN FLEURS NOIR " DESIR DE FUITE " P/41 NEUF/EMBALL.
As intelligence practitioners will attest, it is a damnable question indeed. Nonetheless, there are two solutions to the problem – one partial, the other complete.
The first solution is to look at intelligence data in terms of a jigsaw puzzle extending across time. FRANCO SARTO Brown Leather Knee High Riding Boots EUC, Size 10MAfter fitting together as many of the pieces as possible, one may flag those that are known to be true beyond doubt. Subsequent pieces that fit with those may be presumed true, in the absence of contrary evidence.
Although this approach has considerable merit – including especially the way it facilitates intuitive judgments – the results it generates are both probabilistic and tentative. The likelihood that new data may significantly alter the pattern is high.
In contrast, the second solution can provide definitive answers – but only rarely, Winter Women Shoes Ankle Martin Boots Chelsea Boots Zip Zipper Round Toe Squarewhen two relatively unlikely events occur simultaneously: 1) a high-level penetration agent confirms the validity of specific intelligence data, and 2) a code break “backstops” the veracity of the confirming agent. In the world of intelligence, certainty depends upon serendipity.
The recruitment of high-level penetration agents is rare, and code breaks are even more so. They occur together perhaps once a decade, and when they do intelligence analysts emerge from their garrets to enjoy a brief moment of clarity. But when the agent is lost or the codes are changed, they are condemned to wander once more through what Angleton termed “The Wilderness of Mirrors” – an Epistemological Hell from which neither truth nor falsehood may be surely obtained.
Indigo Rd. Womens CAM Closed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots Taupe Fabric Size 9.5 Ajm
Determining the validity of intelligence data thus depends in part on recruiting from the enemy’s ranks senior political office holders or high-ranking government officials, and in part upon breaking their codes. But once affected, these unlikely circumstances open a window to other intriguing possibilities – including, New Steve Madden Gaze Taupe Round Toe Ankle Bootie Suede Size 10 $120Womens Black 4.5" Stiletto High Heel Sexy Over Knee Boot Size 5.5specifically, offensive counterintelligence operations designed to penetrate, infiltrate, and suborn the target’s intelligence service in order to play it back against the state it serves. The ultimate goal of such operations is to entice or provoke the targeted state into undertaking ruinous and self-destructive actions.BCBGeneration Jonnie Studded Bootie Size 5.5 Black $139 New Leather4TH OF JULY Womens Hi Top American Flag 1.5" Platform Sexy Ankle Boots Size 9
As Angleton observed, successful politicians and senior government officials are a remarkably homogenous lot. For the most part, they derive from roughly comparable social circumstances and share core formative experiences in common. Audrey Hepburn Print Black/Multi 6" Stiletto High Heel Sexy Ankle Boots Size 7Black 1" Low Block Heel Round Toe Knee Boot Side Buckle Size 8They attend the same schools – or at least the same types of schools – and are imbued with the same canon. They also hold remarkably similar beliefs and values, and share certain characteristic attitudes regarding the larger world. Together these form something akin to a collective psyche, or what Angleton termed the “Mind of the State.”
If states have minds, they also have states of mind – and as with individuals, it is their state of mind that makes them most vulnerable to deception. For a state of mind is a predisposition to belief or action; and if that predisposition can be accurately gauged,Sperry Womens saltwater brook Closed Toe Ankle Rainboots, Black, Size 8.0 wAcqNIB GUESS CARLICE BLACK SUEDE ANKLE BOOTIES HEEL WOMEN SIZE 11 M tempting or provoking the targeted decision-makers to ruin becomes a plausible exercise in perception management.
Unlisted Kenneth Cole Tall Tuck Stop Boots Size 8.5 Brown 3.25" Heel Inside Zip
If there is a single failing common to decision-makers throughout history, it is an excessive faith in intelligence. For reasons that remain obscure, decision-makers seem unable or unwilling to grasp the implications of the Epistemological Problem Angleton described. Despite ample warnings, they almost invariably place far more credence in intelligence reports than they deserve; and it is upon this most basic failing that offensive counterintelligence plays.
In The Art of War, Sun Tzu wrote “Supreme excellence is to subdue the enemy without fighting” ARRAY Womens Brittney Leather Closed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots Navy Size 6.0and argued this end may best be achieved by manipulating the “Golden Threads” of intelligence – that is, the lines of communications that connect agents recruited from within the enemy’s camp to one’s own. The first Golden Thread may be activated by sacrificing deliberately misinformed low-level agents for capture, Dirty Laundry Chinese Laundry Women's Chrystal Boot Dark Grey Size 9.0 qlVpdangling double agents for enemy recruitment, and dispatching false defectors to the enemy’s camp. The second is brought into play by querying the agent-in-place to determine how the enemy decision-makers have interpreted the false information they delivered. If the information evokes the intended state of mind, the false message can be reinforced by repeating the process in different ways. If not, it can be modulated until it does.
By these means offensive counterintelligence operations can create a false picture of reality in the minds of targeted decision-makers, much as an artist paints an image upon a sheet of canvass. Brush stroke by brush stroke, the attacking service can exploit the enemy intelligence service it suborned to systematically manipulate the Mind of the State.
Marc Fisher over the ankle black suede high heel boot size 9 medium MF Jones NEW
The many critics of offensive counterintelligence argue that strategic deception operations of the size and scale suggested above are far too complex and complicated to be practical, as they are doomed to eventually collapse under their own weight. new ladies Black 6"Stiletto High Heel Back Spike Over Knee Sexy Boots Size 8The criticism is true at least in part, but nonetheless disingenuous. Intelligence operations of any sort have a relatively short shelf life; and unless shut down by those who initiated them or uncovered by their intended targets, they will ALL eventually collapse for similar cause.
Perhaps more to the point, modern history is strewn with examples of successful strategic deceptions including the TRUST operation of the 1920’s, which saved the nascent Soviet state from ruin; the Soviet-sponsored WIN operation that forced the United States to abandon its post-war efforts to liberate Eastern Europe; and the Anglo-American deception operation that made possible the successful invasion of Normandy in 1944. All of these operations were conducted in the manner outlined above, and each inflicted massive damage upon the states they targeted.
Unfortunately, the United States abandoned its national counterintelligence capability in December of 1974 – and with it, the ability to mount large-scale strategic deception operations. Redefined and re-envisioned by successive administrations, Brown 2.5" Heel Round Toe Side Buckle Sexy Cowboy Mid-Calf Boot Size 11counterintelligence had been reduced to little more than a security function until the Clinton Administration partially resurrected it after disastrous and overlapping penetrations of the CIA and the FBI were uncovered in the 1990’s. Expanded and reorganized in the aftermath of 9-11, a National Counterintelligence Executive now exists as a semi-autonomous supervisory agency. And yet despite the many long overdue reforms that have been undertaken since 2001, U.S. counterintelligence remains hobbled by an obtuse and legalistic definition, conceptual confusion,Womens Black 1.5" Low Block Heel Round Toe Sexy Over Knee Boots Size 10 tangled jurisdictions, and – above all – by institutional timidity. For while offensive counterintelligence operations are now officially recognized, they remain tightly controlled and rarely sanctioned. They are tactical operations, most often mounted in reprisal.
Despite ample modern precedents, strategic deception operations of the sort advocated by Sun Tzu and refined by Angleton remain beyond the pale. This is unfortunate and – for those that seek to limit the suffering caused by armed conflict – deeply disconcerting.Yellow Multi 6" High Wedge Heel 2" Platform Open Toe Sexy Ankle Boot Size 6.5Black 4" High Block Heel Open Toe Sexy Summer Gladiator Knee Boot Size 7
For in the Great Game of Nations, offensive counterintelligence remains the only plausible means for achieving victory without war. For if only in theory, it is the primary offensive instrument of state.
Published by the Center for Intelligence Studies.Dbdk Brown Gold Stud 1.5" Low Block Heel Combat Sexy Ankle Boots Size 5.5Black Stars 5" High Wedge 1.5" Platform Sexy Ankle Boot -Us Womens Size 6.5
1016 K Street NE. Washington, DC. 20002
202 / 399-0292
Copyright 2009. This paper may be reproduced in part or in whole for civic or educational purposes, provided that context is preserved and full attribution is given